Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which set legally binding emission reduction targets (as well as penalties for non-compliance) only for industrialized countries, the Paris Agreement requires all countries – rich, poor, developed and developing – to take their share and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. To this end, the Paris Agreement provides for greater flexibility: commitments that countries should make are not included, countries can voluntarily set their emissions targets and countries will not be penalized if they do not meet their proposed targets. But what the Paris agreement requires is to monitor, report and reassess, over time, the objectives of individual and collective countries, in order to bring the world closer to the broader objectives of the agreement. And the agreement stipulates that countries must announce their next round of targets every five years, contrary to the Kyoto Protocol, which was aimed at this target but which contained no specific requirements to achieve this goal. Not only is this agreement subject to severe economic restrictions, but it also does not meet our environmental ideals. As someone who is very concerned about the environment, which I do, I cannot, in good conscience, support an agreement that penalizes the United States – which they do – the world leader in environmental protection, when the world`s major polluters do not have reasonable obligations. The agreement requires rich nations to meet a funding commitment of $100 billion a year beyond 2020 and to use that figure as a “land” for the additional aid agreed until 2025. To combat climate change and its negative effects, 197 countries adopted the Paris Agreement at COP21 on 12 December 2015 in Paris. The agreement, which came into force less than a year later, aims to significantly reduce global greenhouse gas emissions and limit global temperature rise to 2 degrees Celsius this century, while continuing to limit the rise to 1.5 degrees. To contribute to the goals of the agreement, countries presented comprehensive national climate change plans (national fixed contributions, NDC). These are not yet sufficient to meet the agreed temperature targets, but the agreement points to the way forward for further measures. The Paris Agreement provides a sustainable framework that guides global efforts for decades to come.
The aim is to increase countries` climate ambitions over time. To achieve this, the agreement provides for two review processes, each in a five-year cycle. The Paris Agreement requires the United States and 187 other countries to keep global temperatures rising “well below” 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and limit them to another 1.5 degrees Celsius. Only Syria and Nicaragua have not signed the agreement. Under the Paris Agreement, each country must define, plan and report regularly on its contribution to the fight against global warming.  There is no mechanism for a country to set an emission target for a specified date, but any target should go beyond the previous targets. The United States formally withdrew from the agreement the day after the 2020 presidential election, although President-elect Joe Biden said America would return to the agreement after his inauguration.  Analysts say the U.S.
exit from the Paris Agreement will make it harder for the world to achieve the goals it set for itself in the Paris Agreement. Article 28 of the agreement allows the parties to terminate the contract following a notification of an appeal to the custodian. This notification can only take place three years after the agreement for the country comes into force. The payment is made one year after the transfer. Alternatively, the agreement provides that the withdrawal of the UNFCCC, under which the Paris Agreement was adopted, also withdraws the state from the Paris Agreement.